Dr. P. K. Das

Monday - Saturday 09:00 - 17:00

Sunday - CLOSED

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Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi, Delhi 110076

Monday - Friday 08:00 - 20:00

Saturday and Sunday - CLOSED

+91 98104 44600
Official Address

Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals

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Thyroid cancer doctor in Delhi

According to recent reports, every year approximately, 12,000 men and 33,000 women get thyroid cancer while about 900 men & 1000 women die from it. 

Over the last 3 decades, thyroid carcinoma incidence has been increasing worldwide. Not only that but, data from 2006 to 2012 indicated two things-the annual thyroid cancer incidence rate of men is at about 5.4%, and in women, the rate is at about 6.5%. 

Despite the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide, thyroid cancer treatment in Delhi NCR and pan-India is also evolving, aided by top experts like Dr. P.K.Das, the best oncology doctor in Delhi. 

India ranks 4th among countries with the highest number of thyroid cancers in the world. The increased incidence is due to a combination of factors, including “an apparent increase due to more sensitive diagnostic procedures and of a true increase,” which might be a possible consequence of radiation exposure of an increased population as well as other carcinogenic factors. 

Nevertheless, thyroid cancer is not a death sentence. It is merely a very curable aberration. So, if you or your loved one suspect thyroid cancer, you should immediately consult an expert, like Dr. P.K.Das, the top cancer specialist in Delhi NCR, for the latest treatment, care, & support available.

What is Thyroid Cancer?

Thyroid cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the thyroid gland. It is a part of the endocrine system which regulates hormones in the human body. Absorbing iodine from the bloodstream, the gland produces thyroid hormones, which regulate the body’s metabolism. It is located in front of the neck, just below the larynx, which is called the voice box. Cancer begins when cells begin to grow out of control.

Thyroid cancer types

There are 5 major types of thyroid cancer. They are: 

Papillary thyroid cancer

This cancer originates from the follicular cells, is usually slow-growing, and is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Usually, it is found only in one lobe. However, 10-20% of this cancer appears in both lobes as well. It is a form of differentiated thyroid cancer, which means that in this, the tumor looks similar to normal thyroid tissue under a microscope. They can more often than not spread to lymph nodes.

Follicular thyroid cancer

This is a type of cancer that also develops from follicular cells and is usually slow-growing. While it is also a differentiated thyroid cancer, it is way less common compared to papillary thyroid cancer. It rarely spreads to lymph nodes.

Being the most common differentiated thyroid cancer, along with papillary thyroid cancer, they are mostly curable, especially when found in early stages in individuals below 50 years of age. 

Follicular and papillary thyroid cancers account for about 95% of all thyroid cancer.

Hurthle cell cancer

Hurthle cell cancer, also called Hurthle cell carcinoma, is a rare type of cancer affecting the thyroid gland. It arises from a specific type of follicular cell. It is more likely to spread to the lymph nodes of the body compared to other follicular thyroid cancers.

Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC)

Medullary thyroid cancer, abbreviated as MTC, is a rare type of cancer. It develops in the C cells of the body and can be the result of a specific genetic syndrome called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2). It can often be easily managed if diagnosed and treated before spreading.  MTC accounts for about 3% of all thyroid cancers.

Anaplastic thyroid cancer

Anaplastic thyroid cancer or ATC is also called thyroid carcinoma. It is fast-growing cancer. It is a very aggressive form of thyroid cancer and is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cancerous cells in the thyroid gland. It is extremely rare accounting for approximately 1% of thyroid cancer. It can be further sub typed into giant cell classifications and is difficult to treat.

What causes thyroid cancer?

The exact reason for developing thyroid cancer is not known. However, certain things can increase the odds of individuals getting it. Some of them are:

Inherited genetic syndromes 1

Many thyroid cancer cases come from inherited genes. In 2 out of 10 cases of medullary thyroid cancer, an abnormal gene has been inherited from the family.

Iodine deficiency 2

Iodine is an essential component required for the body. If the body doesn't get it enough in the diet, an individual could be more at risk for certain thyroid cancers. It is rare in developed countries because iodine is added to salt or other foods.

Radiation exposure 3

If someone's head or neck areas have been exposed to radiation treatment or radiation as a child, they are at a higher risk of developing certain types of thyroid cancer.

Thyroid cancer FAQs

  • The overall 5-year survival rate for somebody with thyroid cancer is 98%.

Some of the signs & symptoms of thyroid cancer are: 

  • A lump in the neck, which sometimes grows quickly
  • Swelling in the neck
  • Pain in the front of the neck, sometimes going up to the ears
  • Hoarseness or other voice changes that refuse to go away
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Trouble breathing
  • A constant cough that is not due to a cold

The ‘TNM’ staging system


The system that is used most often for the staging of thyroid cancer was created by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. It is named the ‘TNM’ system, and it primarily focuses on 3 things:

  • T: How big the main tumor is, and whether it has spread to other areas of the body.
  • N: Whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. 
  • M: Whether the cancer has spread, or metastasized, to other parts of the body or organs, namely the lungs, liver, and bones.


Every type of thyroid cancer is staged according to the system.

The exact reason for developing thyroid cancer is not known. However, certain things can increase the odds of individuals getting it. Some of them are: 

  • Inherited genetic syndromes

Many thyroid cancer cases come from inherited genes. In 2 out of 10 cases of medullary thyroid cancer, an abnormal gene has been inherited from the family. 

  • Iodine deficiency

Iodine is an essential component required for the body. If the body doesn’t get it enough in the diet, an individual could be more at risk for certain thyroid cancers. It is rare in developed countries because iodine is added to salt or other foods. 

  • Radiation exposure

If someone’s head or neck areas have been exposed to radiation treatment or radiation as a child, they are at a higher risk of developing certain types of thyroid cancer.

Being a leading thyroid cancer doctor in Delhi, Dr.P.K.Das and the team have the latest technology to diagnose thyroid cancer.


  • Physical Exam

The cancer doctor examines the neck feeling for physical changes in the thyroid, like thyroid nodules. They might also ask the patient about risk factors, like family history of thyroid tumors, radiation exposure, etc. 

  • Blood Tests

Blood tests cannot determine thyroid cancer. However, they can help show if the thyroid gland is working normally. This can help the doctor decide if and what other tests are required. They can also monitor some types of cancers. 

  • Ultrasound Imaging

Using high-frequency sound waves ultrasound creates images of different body structures. During the procedure, the ultrasound transducer is placed in the lower neck. The thyroid’s appearance on the ultrasound helps the doctor determine whether a thyroid nodule is more likely to be noncancerous or whether there’s a risk of it being cancerous. 

  • Biopsy

This procedure is called fine-needle aspiration biopsy. In it, the doctor inserts a long, thin needle through the skin into the thyroid nodule. It uses ultrasound to precisely guide the needle into the nodule. Then the needle removes samples of suspicious thyroid tissue, which is further analyzed in a laboratory to look for cancer cells. 

  • Other Imaging Tests

Imaging tests other than ultrasound can also be performed by doctors to determine whether the thyroid cancer has spread beyond the thyroid. These imaging tests can include CT scans, MRI, and some nuclear imaging tests using radioactive forms of iodine.

  • Genetic Testing

Individuals with medullary thyroid cancer may have certain genetic changes. These changes can be associated with certain endocrine cancers. An individual’s family history might prompt the doctor to recommend genetic testing, looking for genes that increase cancer risk.

The thyroid cancer treatment option is chosen for an individual based on the type & stage of thyroid cancer, overall health, and personal preferences. 

A large percentage of thyroid cancers are curable through treatment. 

  • No Treatment

If the cancerous tumors are very small and have a low risk of spreading, they might not require immediate treatment. Instead, doctors may consider active surveillance along with frequent monitoring for this type of thyroid cancer. Some blood tests and an ultrasound of the neck might be recommended once or twice per year in this case. In some individuals the cancer might never grow or spread, requiring no treatment, ever. In others, eventual growth might be detected and treatment can be initiated. 

  • Surgery

Many people diagnosed with thyroid cancer undergo surgery removing the thyroid. The type of surgery recommended by the doctor depends upon the type of thyroid cancer, it’s size, whether it has spread beyond the thyroid, & the results of an ultrasound exam of the entire thyroid gland. 

Different surgeries are recommended depending on different situations. There’s thyroidectomy which removes all or most of the thyroid, then there’s thyroid lobectomy, which involves removing a portion of the thyroid, and lastly, there is lymph node dissection involving the removal of lymph nodes in the neck. 

  • Thyroid hormone therapy

Post thyroidectomy, cancer doctors may suggest thyroid hormone medications like levothyroxine (Levoxyl, Synthroid, others) for life. Such medication, especially this one, has two benefits primarily. Firstly, it supplies the body with the missing hormone that the thyroid normally produces, and secondly, it suppresses thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH production from the pituitary gland. This helps beat cancer because high TSH levels can stimulate remaining cancer cells to grow. 

  • Radioactive iodine

The radioactive iodine treatment utilizes large doses of a certain form of radioactive iodine. Mostly it is used after a thyroidectomy to destroy remaining healthy thyroid tissue (for safety) along with microscopic areas of thyroid cancer missed during surgery. This treatment may also be used for treating recurrent thyroid cancer that occurs after treatment or spreads to other body parts. The treatment comes in capsule or liquid form that the patient swallows.

While there’s a low risk of this treatment harmfully affecting other healthy cells, some side effects may include:

-Dry mouth

-Mouth pain

-Eye inflammation

-Altered sense of taste or smell


  • Radiation Therapy (External)

External radiation therapy using a machine aiming high-energy beams like X-rays & protons at precise points on the body are often used by doctors treating thyroid cancer. During this treatment, the patients lie still on a table while the machine moves around them.

Oncologists often recommend external radiation therapy in cases where surgery is not an option and cancer has continued to grow even after radioactive iodine treatment. It is also recommended after surgery sometimes if there’s a high risk of recurrence. 

  • Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments for cancer. But, it is not commonly used for thyroid cancer. However, it is recommended sometimes by doctors for individuals with anaplastic thyroid cancer. It uses drugs made from chemicals that kill fast-growing cells, including cancer cells. It can either be administered through pills or veins. It then travels throughout the body, quickly killing growing cells, like cancer cells. It is sometimes combined with radiation therapy in some treatment plans. 

  • Targeted Therapy

Targeted therapy medications focus on unique abnormalities within the cancer cells. These drugs block the abnormalities causing cancer cells to die. In thyroid cancer, these drugs target the signals telling cancer cells to grow & further divide. 

Some targeted therapies like gefitinib have a higher response rate and longer progression-free survival rate compared to chemotherapy in thyroid cancer. It is mostly used in advanced thyroid cancer. 

  • Alcohol injections into the cancer

For some thyroid cancers, alcohol ablation is used. It involves an injection of concentrated ethanol alcohol solution directly into the neck guided by imaging technology like ultrasound, ensuring precise placement. The solution cuts off the blood supply to cancer cells in the neck lymph nodes, in turn causing them to die/shrink. It can be an option if the cancer is small and surgery is not an option. It is also used sometimes to treat recurrent cancer in the lymph nodes post-surgery. 

Dr. P.K.Das offers excellent, latest options for cancer treatment in Delhi NCR.

Yes, thyroid cancer can spread to different parts of the body.

Young adults are disproportionately afflicted with differentiated thyroid cancers.

Surgery is the most common treatment for thyroid cancer.

Yes, if the thyroid is removed, life-long replacement medication is necessary.

Women are 5 times more likely than men to get thyroid cancer.